Let me get this out of the way: side effects are evil. Our job as developers is to build abstractions that solve problems. We build independent, confined little worlds of abstractions that we can control, understand and predict. But at the end of the day, for most jobs, we need some connection to the chaos of the outside world. That’s where the trouble comes in. Side effects, being this necessary connection to the outside world, are unreliable, hard to test and sometimes hacky. Any external API call, any storage interaction, any DOM event handler is adding instability and incertitude to the perfect world you’re striving to build.

Some of us have known this for a long time now, and this is why clever people have come up with ways to deal with side effects in applications: IO monads, Actors, isolated threads … Redux Saga is one of these solutions. Redux Saga is a side-effect model for Redux applications that makes side effects transactions easier to write, reason about and test.

This article is the transcript to a talk I gave in Lille, France entitled Redux Saga: side effects and scalability. Illustrations are slides form the presentation.

Why does Redux Saga exist?

If you’re developing React applications, you may be used to performing your API calls directly in your components, most likely in the componentDidMount hook. And perhaps this has worked fine so far. But today, I will try to demonstrate how this approach keeps your application from scaling up, and why we need something like Redux-Saga to build enterprise-class applications.

The importance of declarative programming

In order to explain the philosophy behind something like Redux Saga, I’d like to take a step back and look at the philosophy of React and Redux and the impact they had on front-end development. If you started front-end development recently, you might not realize this, but when React came out about 5 years ago, it changed the way we build front-end applications forever. Before it came out, the de facto way of building JavaScript apps was to manipulate the DOM in a procedural way, meaning every change of content, style, color, every update of your UI had to be explicitly described. One had to think about everything, the code was verbose and hard to maintain.

React is, to my knowledge, the first library, to introduce declarative programming to the front-end world. Declarative programming can be seen as the opposite of procedural programming: it is a programming paradigm in which programs are written with expressions that represent what your program must accomplish in the end, instead of focusing on the succession of specific steps to get there. In other words, declarative programming allows us to think about the what of our programs, instead of the how.

Here’s an example of how it would translate to JavaScript applications.

The procedural approach

const button = document.createElement('button');
button.textContent = 'Push me'
button.style = 'color:red;';
button.addEventListener('click', () => alert('Stop it'))

Expresses the how : every UI change is explicit. The risk of de-synchronization between the UI layer and the state of the application is high. Unexpected behaviors can easily occur if this code is run several times: if we are not cautious enough, the click event listener could be registered multiple times, resulting in multiple alert being fired.

The declarative approach (with JSX)

<button style={{color: 'red'}} onClick={() => alert('Stop it')}>
 Push me

Expresses the *what *: we simply declare what our program should look like at any given point in time, and React makes it happen. The view layer and the state of our components are always in sync, and event listeners are handled so that there cannot be two of them on the same component, for the same event at the same time.

This approach is possible because React abstracts away the verbosity and complexity of the DOM for us, so we can focus on the looks and business value of our applications.

In React applications, data flows from the state to the view layer. This is what some functional programmers call the React formula :

v = f(s)
The view is a function of the state. Whenever the state evolves, the view evolves accordingly

React is the first library to treat view components as functions. You can compose them the way you compose functions, you can make higher-order components, use currying … Whenever the state changes, the view changes. If you treat your components as pure functions, this synchronization is conceptually atemporal. Imagine your state flowing from the top down through every component of your page. This makes the application far easier to reason about.

However, managing state is hard: if you’re doing vanilla React, you’ve most likely encountered this components hell situation, where sibling components are communicating through dozens of props and callbacks passed to their parent. You can easily lose the sense of what’s going on, and while newer features of React like the Context API aim at solving these issues, they remain insufficient for most large-scale applications.

Redux brings declarative programming at scale

Redux was made to tackle these state management issues, but not in any way. There is a consistency between React’s philosophy of declarative programming and the way Redux manages the state of your application. State flows only in one way, allowing you to reason about your program with ease.

Redux stores have three core properties :

  • They are *predictable *: it is always possible to know what your store will look like
  • They are *functional *: you can only update your store through the use of purely functional transforms. This makes Redux easier to test, since reducers are only pure functions
  • They are inspectable: Redux devtools allows you to inspect your store, see the actions that have been dispatched, and travel in time to understand what’s going on

As a reminder, here is how state flows in Redux applications :

Redux Saga is the missing piece

So here we are: you’ve got yourself nice and pure view components, and a tidy Redux store that does the heavy lifting of managing your state. You have built a nice world of abstraction where everything is at the right place and everything has been made predictable by the use of awesome tooling, carefully designed layers and extensive unit tests. But you’ve forgotten the most painful, yet most important piece: effects.

Effects connect our applications to the outside world. In functional programming theory, we strive to avoid them as much as possible, but in practice, they’re indispensable. When you think about it, effects are what people pay you for.

If people still used business cards, I would print business cards […] and the only thing the business card would say is “Side effects”

Russ Olsen, Functional Programming in 40 minutes

The thing is, people don’t care about the nice abstractions you’ve built or the beauty of a line of code. They care about the effects of your code on the outside world. Having said that, we need a nice way to handle those effects that won’t break the purity of our view layer, or the predictability of our store. We need to treat side effects as the danger they represent and segregate them from the rest of our code.

All the bugs in one place

Following this approach has one big advantage for developers: if you have properly handled side effects, then all the bugs you will encounter in your application are most likely to come from this effectful part. I like to refer to this segregation of side effects as an island :

An island of side effects in a sea of purity

Side effects are an island in the middle of the sea. Except it’s an island filled with all sorts of deadly creatures. When we get to sagas, I will also refer to them as the danger zone, as opposed to the safe zone. The safe zone is your set of pure, properly tested components. The danger zone is anything you can’t control.

How do sagas work?

A saga is much like a transaction. It’s a succession of effects that can be asynchronous calls, logging or storage manipulations. Sagas can listen to some sort of event, usually the dispatch of a Redux action, and trigger effects automatically. Redux Saga is inspired by functional reactive programming, so if you have already used something like event emitters, RxJS Observables or Cycle.js, you should feel right at home. And you haven’t, don’t worry, you will get comfortable with it.

Redux Saga uses JS Generators to allow you to write asynchronous code in a pseudo-synchronous style, which means no callback-hell. You can also handle errors using try/catch like you would in synchronous functions. If don’t know what generators are, here’s an article to get you started. But you don’t need to be a generators expert to use Redux Saga :)

Taking off

Online flights application built with Redux Saga

For the talk, I built a little application that fetches fake flights from an API. The application has two main features: being able to search for airports using autocomplete, and being able to retrieve flights from two different APIs.

You can download the project on my github right here. In this article, I won’t get into how to install Redux Saga in your project. I invite you to get a look at the src/state/index.js file for this project. You will see that Redux Saga is Redux middleware, that you install just like you would Redux devtools.

Fetching airport predictions using Redux Saga

This is a saga that searches airports given a query string. This is intended to be used with an autocomplete field. I’ll explain in detail how it works.

import axios from 'axios';
import {
} from 'redux-saga/effects'

export function* loadPredictions ({ payload: query }) {
 if (!query || query.length < 3) {
 yield put(setPredictions([]));

 yield put(setIsLoading(true));
 try {
 const url = `http://autocomplete.travelpayouts.com/places2?term=${query}&locale=en&types[]=airport`;
 const { data } = yield call(axios.get, url);
 yield put(setPredictions(sanitizePredictions(data)));
 } catch (e) {
 } finally {
 yield put(setIsLoading(false));

A saga is a succession of effects inside a generator (a function*). Effects are functions that you need to yield from your saga. There are effects for calling external functions, spawning new sagas from the current one, reading from the store, dispatching actions …

The saga above contains two of the most common effect you will need :

  • **call **: calls another saga or a function that returns a promise and waits for the result. The rest of the saga won’t be executed until the function resolves. Errors can be caught with a try/catch just like synchronous code. Note that while this gives the impression of synchronicity, this does not block the event loop. If you’ve used async/await, you can think of this as async/await on steroids. The syntax for call is const result = yield call(function, ...arguments). Notice how we can use destructuring here to get the body of the response directly.
  • **put **: dispatches an action to the store. This how you would mutate the state of your application after you’ve fetched the data you need. Here, we are dispatching two different actions: setIsLoading shows the loader before the AJAX call starts, and hides it when it ends or when it fails. The setPredictions action replaces the predictions in the store with the result of our AJAX call.

Listening for events

Now we’ve got a nice saga to retrieve our predictions. There is one problem though: where does this query parameter come from? Well, Redux Saga allows you to listen for events and execute a saga whenever the event fires. There are two types of events you can listen for: the dispatch of an action or your store, and activity on a channel. Channels allow you to connect to external events producers, they are much like hot observables in RxJS. But for now, we will only listen to actions.

export default function* () {
 yield takeEvery(LOAD_PREDICTIONS, loadPredictions);

The code above basically says whenever an action with the type LOAD_PREDICTIONS is dispatched, call the loadPredictions saga. Then we can use connect from react-redux to expose our loadPredictions action creator to our view layer, and bind our API call to the change event of an input. This is done in the src/pages/Home/index.js file. The loadPredictions saga will receive the dispatched action as its argument. This is where our query comes from. We’re receiving an action of the form { type: 'LOAD_PREDICTIONS', payload: 'Paris' }, and we’re destructuring it to retrieve only Paris and assign it to a query constant.

When used with a string, takeLatest will match against any action whose type equals to this string. However, it can match against a variety of rules too: you can match all actions or actions that match a predicate e.g. any action that has a non-empty payload, or you can match against an array of the above rules. All of this is explained in detail in the documentation.

Debouncing events

Our predictions system works, but it could be made better. Right now, we’re triggering an AJAX call each time the user types a character, which isn’t great performance-wise. On autocomplete fields, you always want to use some kind of debouncing. Debouncing is waiting for the user to finish typing before triggering the search. If you specify a debounce time of let’s say a second, then every keystroke made within the same second will be sort of ignored. After a second without typing, only the very last value of the field is taken into account for th search.

To debounce our search, we will need to change both the loadPredictions saga and the listener.

const debounceTime = 500;

export function* loadPredictions ({ payload: query }) {
  if (!query || query.length < 3) {
    yield put(setPredictions([]));

  yield put(setIsLoading(true));
  yield delay(debounceTime);
  const url = `http://autocomplete.travelpayouts.com/places2?term=${query}&locale=en&types[]=airport`;
  const { data } = yield call(axios.get, url);
  yield put(setPredictions(sanitizePredictions(data)));
  yield put(setIsLoading(false));

export default function* () {
  let task;
  while(true) {
    const action = yield take(LOAD_PREDICTIONS);
    if (task) {
      yield cancel(task)
    task = yield fork(loadPredictions, action)

Here we introduce three new effects from Redux Saga :

  • *delay *: blocks the current saga for a given amount of time (in milliseconds)
  • *fork *: calls another saga from within the current one in a non-blocking way, meaning the rest of the saga will be immediately executed instead of waiting for the forked saga to return
  • *cancel *: cancels a previously forked saga. The forked saga will jump directly to the end, ignoring any effect it would have otherwise executed.

Here’s how the code above works: the combination of the infinite while loop, along with the take effect allows reproducing the behavior of the takeEvery effect. At each keystroke, we are canceling the current instance of the loadPredictions saga if any, we are forking the loadPredictions saga and we are assigning it to a variable so we can cancel it if need be.

In the loadPredictions we are delaying the AJAX call by 500 milliseconds. This recipe allows us to debounce our AJAX call. Whenever a key is stroked during the 500 milliseconds delay, the saga will be canceled before the AJAX call gets a chance to be executed, and a new instance of the saga is forked, resulting in a reset of the delay. This means there’s is always a 500 ms delay between the last keystroke and the start of the AJAX call at any given time.

You can learn more about debouncing in the recipes section of the documentation.

Running effects in parallel

Now that our saga is ready, we must talk about how to work with multiple sagas in an application. Redux saga requires you to run a single saga, much like Redux wants you to provide a single reducer. In theory, you could handle all of your application’s side effects in a single saga. In practice though, you should strive for single responsibility sagas. Surely there must be a way to combine sagas into a single one.

Enter the parallel effect.

The all effect takes an array of effects and executes them in parallel. When you yield an all effect, the current saga is blocked until either all the effects resolve, or one of them fails, just like how Promise.all behaves.

// Example taken from the documentation
const [users, repos] = yield all([
  call(fetch, '/users'),
  call(fetch, '/repos')

To combine our sagas into a single one, we can do something like this :

// src/state/sagas/index.js
export default function* () {
  yield all([

Testing our sagas

There is one last thing we need to talk about before concluding this article: testing. So far we have talked about how unpredictable side effects are compared to pure components, but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t maximize your chances of getting your app working. One of the main benefits of Redux Saga is that sagas are easy to test. Using Redux Saga Test Plan, you can make assertions on the effects that your saga yields, mimic the content of your store, simulate the dispatch of actions, and even do snapshot testing (i.e. save the textual representation of your saga to prevent regression).

Here is the test file for a saga called loadFlights. Can you guess what this saga does?

describe('loadFlights saga', () => {
  it('Should call the two providers with appropriate arguments.', () => {
    return expectSaga(loadFlights)
        flights: {
          flights: [],
          departureAirport: { code: 'CDG' },
          arrivalAirport: { code: 'NYO' },
          departureDate: 'DATE',
      .fork(loadFlightsFromFirstProvider, 'CDG', 'NYO', 'DATE')
      .fork(loadFlightsFromSecondProvider, 'CDG', 'NYO', 'DATE')

Tests are a great way to document your code. Tests serve as living documentation, one that is always up-to-date by nature.

  • We start by defining the prerequisites of our test. Here we use withState to mock the content of the store since the saga relies on the content of the store to work properly.
  • Then we make our assertions. Here we need to retrieve flights from two different APIs, so we check that two sagas are forked by the saga under test with the appropriate arguments
  • Finally, we run our saga. For the sake of concision, I chose not to mock anything, which means the tests will be executed against the real APIs, that’s why we need to provide a 2 seconds timeout as an argument. This ensures that the test won’t fail because of the APIs response time. In a real test, you should mock any dependency of the saga under test, including external APIs.

There is plenty to explore in Redux Saga Test Plan, and you use jest, you can also use jest.mock and jest.fn to mock external dependencies, just like you would in any other test. I encourage you to always test your sagas, even if only for documentation purposes. It should be clear, looking at the test file, what you’re trying to achieve.

The anatomy of sagas and the virtues of simplicity

As this article gets to an end, I’d like to take a step back at what we’ve learned so far, and give you a visual representation of how Redux Saga fits in an application.

The anatomy of Redux Sagas

This image shows the three layers of a React / Redux / Redux Saga application: the view, the state, and the effects, all sorted by their level of danger. You can see how the view layer communicates with the store, and how the store and the sagas interact :

  • take listens to actions to start the saga
  • select reads data from the store
  • put dispatches an action to the store, resulting in the update of all the subsequent layers. You can get a feel of how data flows in the application.

I’ve also added two of the effects we’ve seen so far: call and fork, that run other sagas or asynchronous functions in a blocking or non-blocking way respectively. You can represent sagas as branches, where effects can be run either in series or in parallel. You don’t need much more to handle your application’s logic. Redux Saga is yet not another framework: it gives this rather small set of fundamental tools, that you can combine to achieve anything you want.

As a conclusion, I’d like to share with you this talk by Rich Hickey called Simple made easy, where he makes the distinction between simplicity and easiness and encourages us to build simple systems and strive for simple constructs, even when it seems harder at first. The state is one of these complex constructs, that make our applications less reliable and harder to reason about on a global scale. Overall, this talk is a nice introduction to the value of abstractions and the virtues of purity.

Thank you for reading this article.